Rashtrakuta (IAST: rāṣṭrakūṭa) was a royal dynasty that ruled major regions of the Indian Subcontinent between the 6th and 10th centuries. The earliest recognised Rashtrakuta inscription is a Seventh-century copper plate grant detailing their rule from Manapura, a metropolis in Central or West India. Different ruling Rashtrakuta clans from the identical interval talked about in inscriptions had been the kings of Achalapur (trendy Elichpur in Maharashtra) and the rulers of Kannauj. There are some controversies that exist about the origin of those early Rashtrakutas, their native residence and their language.
The Elichpur clan was a feudatory of the Badami Chalukyas, and through the rule of Dantidurga, it overthrew Chalukya Kirtivarman II and went on to construct an empire with the Gulbarga area in trendy Karnataka as its base. This clan got here to be often called the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, rising to energy in South India in 753. During the same time, the Pala dynasty of Bengal and the Prathihara dynasty of Malwa had been gaining power in eastern and northwestern India respectively. An Arabic textual content, Silsilat al-Tawarikh (851), known as the Rashtrakutas one of many 4 principal empires of the world.
This era, between the 8th and the 10th centuries, noticed a tripartite battle for the assets of the wealthy Gangetic plains. Every of those three empires annexing the seat of energy at Kannauj for brief intervals of time. At their peak, the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta dominated an unlimited empire stretching from the Ganges River and Yamuna River doab in the north to Cape Comorin in the South, a fruitful time of political growth, architectural achievements and well-known literary contributions. The early kings of this dynasty had been influenced by Hinduism and the later kings by Jainism.
Throughout their rule, Jain mathematicians and scholars contributed significant works in Kannada and Sanskrit. Amoghavarsha I, arguably the most well-known king of this dynasty wrote Kavirajamarga. It is a landmark literary work in the Kannada language. Art and Architecture reached a milestone in the Dravidian style, the best instance of which can be seen within the Kailasanath Temple at Ellora in Maharashtra. Other significant contributions are the Kashivishvanatha temple and the Jain Narayana temple at Pattadakal in trendy Karnataka, each of that are UNESCO World Heritage Websites.
History of Rashtrakuta Dynasty:
The origin of the Rashtrakuta dynasty has been a controversial matter in the history of India. These points pertain to the origin of the earliest ancestors of the Rashtrakutas through the time of Emperor Ashoka within the 2nd century BCE, and the connection between the number of Rashtrakuta dynasties that dominated small kingdoms in northern and central India and the Deccan between the Sixth and Seventh centuries. The connection of those medieval Rashtrakutas to the most well-known later dynasty, the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta (current day Malkhed within the Gulbarga district, Karnataka state), who dominated between the eighth and 10th centuries has additionally been debated.
The sources for Rashtrakuta historical past embrace medieval inscriptions, historic literature within the Pali language, contemporaneous literature in Sanskrit and Kannada and the notes of the Arab travellers. Theories in regards to the dynastic lineage (Surya Vamsa—Solar line and Chandra Vamsa—Lunar line), the native area and the ancestral residence have been proposed, based mostly on info gleaned from inscriptions, royal emblems, the traditional clan names equal to “Rashtrika”, epithets (Ratta, Rashtrakuta, Lattalura Puravaradhiswara), the names of princes and princesses of the dynasty, and clues from relics equal to cash. Students debate over which ethnic/linguistic teams can declare the early Rashtrakutas. Potentialities embrace the northwestern ethnic teams of India, the Kannadiga, Reddi, the Maratha, or the tribes from the Punjab area.
Scholars still concur that the rulers of the imperial dynasty within the eighth to the 10th century made the Kannada language as necessary as Sanskrit. Rashtrakuta inscriptions use each Kannada and Sanskrit (historians Sheldon Pollock and Jan Houben declare they’re principally in Kannada), and the rulers inspired literature in each language. The earliest present Kannada literary writings are credited to their court docket poets and royalty. Although these Rashtrakutas had been Kannadigas, they had been accustomed to a northern Deccan language as nicely.
The guts of the Rashtrakuta Empire included practically all of Karnataka, Maharashtra and components of Andhra Pradesh, space which the Rashtrakutas dominated for over two centuries. The Samangadh copper plate grant (753) confirms that the feudatory King Dantidurga, who in all probability dominated from Achalapura in Berar (trendy Elichpur in Maharashtra), defeated the nice Karnatic military (referring to the military of the Badami Chalukyas) of Kirtivarman II of Badami in 753 and took management of the northern areas of the Chalukya empire. He then helped his father-in-law, Pallava King Nandivarman regain Kanchi from the Chalukyas and defeated the Gurjaras of Malwa, and the rulers of Kalinga, Kosala and Srisailam.
Dantidurga’s successor Krishna I introduced main parts of present-day Karnataka and Konkan beneath his management. In the course of the rule of Dhruva Dharavarsha who took management in 780, the dominion expanded into an empire that encompassed the entire territory between the Kaveri River and Central India. He led profitable expeditions to Kannauj, the seat of northern Indian energy the place he defeated the Gurjara Pratiharas and the Palas of Bengal, gaining him fame and huge booty but no more territory. He additionally introduced the Eastern Chalukyas and Gangas of Talakad beneath his management. In keeping with Altekar and Sen, the Rashtrakutas grew to become a pan-India energy throughout his rule.
Expansion of the Empire:
The ascent of Dhruva Dharavarsha’s third son, Govinda III, to the throne, heralded a period of success like by no means earlier than. There’s uncertainty in regards to the location of the early capital of the Rashtrakutas at the moment. Throughout his rule, there was a 3 approach battle between the Rashtrakutas, the Palas and the Pratiharas for management over the Gangetic plains. Describing his victories over the Pratihara Emperor Nagabhatta II and the Pala Emperor Dharmapala, the Sanjan inscription states the horses of Govinda III drank from the icy waters of the Himalayan streams and his warfare elephants tasted the sacred waters of the Ganges. His navy exploits have been in comparison with these of Alexander the Nice and Arjuna of Mahabharata. Having conquered Kannauj, he travelled south, took agency maintain over Gujarat, Kosala (Kaushal), Gangavadi, humbled the Pallavas of Kanchi, put in a ruler of his alternative in Vengi and obtained two statues as an act of submission from the king of Ceylon (one statue of the king and one other of his minister). The Cholas, the Pandyas and the Cheras all paid him tribute. As one historian places it, the drums of the Deccan had been heard from the Himalayan caves to the shores of the Malabar. The Rashtrakutas empire now unfolds over the areas from Cape Comorin to Kannauj and from Banaras to Bharuch.
The successor of Govinda III, Amoghavarsha I made Manyakheta his capital and dominated a big empire. Manyakheta remained the Rashtrakutas’ regal capital till the tip of the Empire. He got here to the throne in 814 but it surely was not till 821 that he had suppressed revolts from feudatories and ministers. Amoghavarsha I made peace with the Western Ganga dynasty by giving them his two daughters in marriage, after which defeated the invading Japanese Chalukyas at Vingavalli and assumed the title Viranarayana. His rule was not as militant as that of Govinda III as the most well-liked to take care of pleasant relations together with his neighbours, the Gangas, the Japanese Chalukyas and the Pallavas with whom he additionally cultivated marital ties. His period was an enriching one for the humanities, literature and faith. Extensively seen as the most well-known of the Rashtrakuta Emperors, Amoghavarsha I used to be an achieved scholar in Kannada and Sanskrit. His Kavirajamarga is taken into account a necessary landmark in Kannada poetics and Prashnottara Ratnamalika in Sanskrit is a writing of excessive benefit and was later translated into the Tibetan language. Due to his spiritual temperament, his curiosity within the arts and literature and his peace-loving nature, he has been in comparison with Emperor Ashoka and known as “Ashoka of the South”.
In the course of the rule of Krishna II, the empire confronted a revolt from the Japanese Chalukyas and its dimension decreased to the realm together with many of the Western Deccan and Gujarat. Krishna II ended the impartial standing of the Gujarat department and introduced it beneath direct management from Manyakheta. Indra III recovered the dynasty’s fortunes in central India by defeating the Paramara after which invaded the doab area of the Ganges and Jamuna rivers. He additionally defeated the dynasty’s conventional enemies, the Pratiharas and the Palas, whereas sustaining his affect over Vengi. The impact of his victories in Kannauj lasted many years in line with the 930 copper plate inscription of Emperor Govinda IV. After a succession of weak kings throughout whose reigns the empire misplaced management of territories within the north and east, Krishna III the final great ruler consolidated the empire in order that it stretched from the Narmada River to Kaveri River and included the northern Tamil nation (Tondaimandalam) whereas levying tribute on the king of Ceylon.
Decline of the Rashtrukatas:
In 972 A.D., through the rule of Khottiga Amoghavarsha, the Paramara King Siyaka Harsha attacked the empire and plundered Manyakheta, the capital of the Rashtrakutas. This significantly undermined the status of the Rastrakuta Empire and so led to its downfall. The ultimate decline was sudden as Tailapa II, a feudatory of the Rashtrakuta ruling from Tardavadi province in trendy Bijapur district, declared himself impartial by profiting from this defeat. Indra IV, the final emperor, dedicated Sallekhana (fasting unto loss of life practised by Jain monks) at Shravanabelagola. With the autumn of the Rashtrakutas, their feudatories and associated clans within the Deccan and northern India declared independence. The Western Chalukyas annexed Manyakheta and made it their capital till 1015 and constructed a formidable empire within the Rashtrakuta heartland through the 11th century. The main focus of dominance shifted to the Krishna River – Godavari River doab known as Vengi. The previous feudatories of the Rashtrakutas in western Deccan had been introduced beneath management of the Chalukyas, and the hitherto-suppressed Cholas of Tanjore grew to become their arch-enemies within the South.
In conclusion, the rise of Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta had an ideal impression on India, even in India’s north. Sulaiman (851), Al-Masudi (944) and Ibn Khurdadba (912) wrote that their empire was the most important in up to date India and Sulaiman, known as it one among the many 4 nice up to date empires of the world. In keeping with the travelogues of the Arabs Al-Masudi and Ibn Khordidbih of the 10th century, “many of the kings of Hindustan turned their faces in the direction of the Rashtrakuta king whereas they had been praying, they usually prostrated themselves earlier than his ambassadors. The Rashtrakuta king was often called the “King of kings” (Rajadhiraja) who possessed the mightiest of armies and whose domains prolonged from Konkan to Sind.” Some historians have known as these occasions an “Age of Imperial Kannauj”. Because the Rashtrakutas captured Kannauj, levied tribute on its rulers and offered themselves as masters of North India, the period is also known as the “Age of Imperial Karnataka”. Throughout their political growth into central and northern India within the eighth to the 10th centuries, the Rashtrakutas or their kin created many kingdoms that both dominated through the reign of the dad or mum empire or continued to rule for hundreds of years after its fall or got here to energy a lot later. Famous amongst these had been the Rashtrakutas of Gujarat (757–888), the Rattas of Saundatti (875–1230) in trendy Karnataka, the Gahadavalas of Kannauj (1068–1223), the Rashtrakutas of Rajasthan (often called Rajputana) and ruling from Hastikundi or Hathundi (893–996), Dahal (close to Jabalpur), Mandore (close to Jodhpur), the Rathores of Dhanop, Rashtraudha dynasty of Mayuragiri in trendy Maharashtra and Rashtrakutas of Kannauj. Rajadhiraja Chola’s conquest of the island of Ceylon within the early 11th century CE led to the autumn of 4 kings there. In keeping with historian Ok. Pillay, one in every of them, King Madavarajah of the Jaffna kingdom, was a usurper from the Rashtrakuta Dynasty.